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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 55  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 204-208

The impact of a HIV prevention of mother to child transmission program in a nigerian early infant diagnosis centre


Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, National Hospital Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Iregbu Kenneth Chukwuemeka
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, National Hospital, P. M. B. 425, Abuja - 900001
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0300-1652.132039

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Background: Mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can transmit the virus to their babies in utero, intrapartum or postpartum through breastfeeding. Maternal to child transmission can be prevented through administration of antiretroviral drugs to mother and child, and through restriction of breastfeeding. This study evaluated the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) activities in reducing the incidence of HIV infection among exposed babies at the National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Early infant diagnosis laboratory records of 515 exposed babies aged below 18 months who had polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test between January 1 st 2011 and December 31 st 2012 were reviewed. The details of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy commencement for mother and baby, infant feeding choices, mode of delivery and HIV test results were analysed. Results: Of the 515 samples tested, 36 (7.0%) were found to be positive. The mean age of exposed children tested was 4 months. Highest prevalence was among children in the age group 6-18 months (16.1%). There was statistically significant association between HIV positive results and age. (P = 0.0000). If the mother and child pairs received ARVs, the prevalence was 1.3%, whereas if the mother only received ARV, then the prevalence was 4.6%, and when only the child received ARV the prevalence was 20.0%. When neither the mother nor the child received ARVs, the prevalence was 66.7%. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of HIV among exposed children in our setting, especially if the mother and child pairs did not receive any form of antiretroviral prophylaxis. This further emphasises the usefulness of ARVs as the single most important intervention in PMTCT. Therefore, there is need to expand antiretroviral coverage, ensure access of the PMTCT program, and provide effective services to support infected children.


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