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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 56  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 240-243

Analysis of 46 cases of malignant jaw tumours in Calabar, Nigeria

Department of Dental Surgery, Maxillofacial Unit, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Otasowie Daniel Osunde
Department of Dental Surgery, Maxillofacial Unit, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0300-1652.169696

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Background: The occurrence and distribution of malignant jaw tumours differs across the globe because of differences in geographical, cultural, racial, and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the types and pattern of malignant jaw tumours in Calabar, located in South-South Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The histopathologic results, as well as demographic and clinical information of all consecutive patients diagnosed of having a malignant jaw tumour at the Oral and Maxillofacial Unit of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria from January 2000 to December 2013 was retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 46 (25.1%) out of the 180 cases of jaw neoplasms seen over the 14 year period were malignant. There was a slight male predominance with a ratio of 1.7:1 and the age ranged from 4 to 70 years, mean (standard deviation) 34.6 (4.56) years. The most common malignant lesion was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n = 20; 43.5%), followed by Burkitt lymphoma (n = 8; 17.4%). The gender distributions of the lesions were significant, with more SCC seen in females in a ratio of 1.5:1 in relation to males. Osteosarcoma (n = 6; 13%) and rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 4; 8.7%) were observed only in males and females, respectively. About half of the lesions occurred in the mandible (47.8%). The age distribution of lesions was significant (P < 0.001), with SCC frequently seen in the sixth and seventh decades while Burkitt's lymphoma and rhabdomyosarcoma were seen around the first decade. Clinical presentations ranged from swelling (n = 31), pain (n = 26), loosed teeth (n = 15), toothache (n = 11) to missing teeth (n = 9) among others and occurring either singly or in two or more combinations. The duration of symptoms on presentation ranged from 1 to 46 months, mean 21.7 (13.12) months and this was not different for male or female (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Oral cancer awareness campaign and advocacy is necessary to steer the awareness of the population on the need for regular dental visits, early recognition, and the dangers associated with late presentation of orofacial malignancy.

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