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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 56  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 394-399

Assessment of some cardiovascular risk factors in predialysis chronic kidney disease patients in Southern Nigeria


1 Kidney Care Centre, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
3 Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Oluseyi A Adejumo
Kidney Care Centre, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Ondo State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0300-1652.171616

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Background: Cardiovascular risk factors are responsible for cardiovascular disease and rapid progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease. Prompt evaluation, modification, and treatment of these factors in predialysis patients will reduce morbidity and mortality. This study assessed some cardiovascular risk factors in predialysis CKD patients in a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: This was a case–control study that involved 76 consecutive predialysis CKD patients and 38 age-and sex-matched controls without CKD over 1 year period. Both groups were assessed for cardiovascular risk factors, and comparisons were made. A P value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: The mean ages of the CKD versus control group were 48.00 ± 15.28 versus 45.34 ± 15.35 years. The male:female ratio was 1.7:1 for both groups. The common etiologies of CKD in this study were hypertension 30 (39.5%), diabetes mellitus 23 (30.3%), and chronic glomerulonephritis 19 (25%). There were 38 (50%) in CKD stage 3, 31 (40.8%) in CKD stage 4, and 7 (9.2%) in CKD stage 5. The common cardiovascular risk factors found in the CKD versus control were hypertension (96.1% vs. 42.1%), anemia (96.1% vs. 23.7%), left ventricular hypertrophy (77.6% vs. 23.7%), dyslipidemia (67.1% vs. 39.5%), hypocalcemia (60.1% vs. 18.5%), hyperphosphatemia (63.2% vs. 0%), and hyperuricemia (57.9% vs. 15.8%). These risk factors were significantly higher in CKD group. Hyperphosphatemia and hypoalbuminemia significantly increased across CKD stages 3–5. Anemia was significantly more common in males whereas dyslipidemia was more common in female CKD patients. Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors were highly prevalent in predialysis CKD subjects even in early stages. Hypoalbuminemia and hyperphosphatemia significantly increased across the CKD stages 3–5 whereas anemia and dyslipidemia showed significant gender differences. Cardiovascular risk factors should be treated early in predialysis CKD patients.


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