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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 56  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 411-415

Determinants and outcome of fetal macrosomia in a Nigerian tertiary hospital


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mother and Child Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Oghenefegor Edwin Olokor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, P.M.B. 1111, Benin City, Edo State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0300-1652.171622

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Background: To determine the incidence and risk factors of fetal macrosomia and maternal and perinatal outcome. Patients and Methods: This was a 1-year prospective case–control study of singleton pregnancies in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Only women who gave consent were recruited for the study. The maternal and perinatal outcomes in women who delivered macrosomic infants (birth weight ≥ 4000 g) were compared with the next consecutive delivery of normal birth weight (2500–3999 g) infants. Results: The total deliveries for the study period were 2437, of which 135 were macrosomic babies. The incidence of fetal macrosomia was 5.5%. The mean birth weights of macrosomic and nonmacrosomic babies were 4.26 ± 0.29 kg and 3.20 ± 0.38 kg, respectively, P = 0.000. Mothers with macrosomic babies were more likely to be older (P = 0.047), of higher parity (0.001), taller (P = 0.007), and weighed more at delivery (P = 0.000). Previous history of fetal macrosomia (P = 0.000) and maternal diabetes (P = 0.007) were factors strongly associated with the delivery of macrosomic infants. Pregnancies associated with fetal macrosomia had increased duration of labor (P = 0.007), interventional deliveries (P = 0.000), shoulder dystocia, and genital laceration (P = 0.000). There was no significant difference in the incidence of primary postpartum hemorrhage (P = 0.790), birth asphyxia, and perinatal mortality (P = 0.197). Conclusion: Fetal macrosomia is associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. The presence of the observed risk factors should elicit the suspicion of a macrosomic fetus and the need for appropriate management to reduce maternal and fetal morbidities.


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