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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 33-38

Influence of smoking on gingival crevicular fluid interleukin 1β and interleukin-8 in patients with severe chronic periodontitis among a Rural Population in India

1 Department of Periodontics, Chhattisgarh Dental College and Research Institute, Rajnandgaon, Chhattisgarh, India
2 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Al Farabi Colleges, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Butchibabu Kalakonda
Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Al Farabi Colleges, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/nmj.NMJ_142_17

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Background and Objective: Smoking is widely prevalent among rural Indian populations. Smoking is considered a significant risk factor for periodontal diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of smoking on the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL) IL-1β and IL-8 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and compare these between smokers and nonsmokers with periodontitis in diseased and healthy sites. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty patients with severe chronic periodontitis (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) participated in this study. Clinical parameters assessed were gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level. One diseased and one healthy site from each of the periodontitis patients were selected for GCF collection and assigned to the following four groups: healthy sites in smoker (SH), diseased sites in smoker (SD), healthy sites in nonsmoker (NH), and diseased sites in nonsmoker (ND) and were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test (Quantikine®). Results: Intragroup comparisons revealed statistically significant levels of IL-1β in ND sites compared to NH sites (P < 0.005) and SD sites showed statistically significantly higher levels of IL-1β compared to SH sites (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in IL-8 levels between NH and ND sites as well as between SH and SD sites. Intergroup comparisons revealed that SH sites exhibited significantly lower amounts of IL-8 (P < 0.01) compared to NH sites and SD sites showed significantly lower levels of IL-8 compared to ND sites (P < 0.001). However, the comparison of NH and SH sites as well as ND and SD sites showed no significant difference in the levels of IL-1β. Conclusions: Cytokine levels were significantly elevated in periodontitis patients. Smokers exhibited a decrease in IL-8 and increase in IL-1β levels. Hence, this reflects the influence of smoking on immunosuppression and its role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

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