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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 60  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 317-325

High Risk of Drug–drug interactions among Hospitalized Patients with kidney Diseases at a Nigerian Teaching Hospital: A Call for Action

1 Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
2 Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abdulwasiu Adeniyi Busari
Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003 Idi-Araba, Lagos
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/nmj.NMJ_2_19

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Background: Potential drug–drug interactions (DDIs) are increasingly common in clinical practice, especially among individuals with chronic conditions, such as chronic kidney dysfunction. However, data relating to DDIs among chronically ill patients are limited in Nigeria. We, therefore, investigated the prevalence and pattern of DDIs among patients with kidney diseases on admission at a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving 61 adults with kidney diseases and on admission in medical wards of the study center, over a 3-month period. Data extractions were with a purposefully designed pro forma to extract relevant data on demographic, clinical, and dosing regimens of the prescribed drugs for individual patients. Potential DDIs were identified, and their severity was rated using the MICROMEDEX® software database (IBM® Watson–Truven Health Analytics), which is available online with limited access. Results: Of the 61 patients evaluated, majority were males (34; 55.7%), were elderly (26; 42.6%), and had chronic kidney disease Stage 3 (40; 65.5%). The most common cause of kidney disease was hypertension (20; 32.8%). Out of the 542 prescriptions received by the patients, potential DDI was observed in 508 (93.7%) prescriptions. Clinically significant drug interactions (CSDIs) were detected in 486 (85.7%) prescriptions. Pharmacodynamic DDIs (466; 91.7%) were the most common. Pill burden exceeding 25 pills/day was present in nine (14.8%) patients. The severities of the potential DDIs were major (135; 24.9%), moderate (333; 61.4%), and minor (38; 7.1%). Only two different potential DDIs were rated X (contraindicated). Conclusion: Exposure to drugs with potential DDIs was very common among patients with kidney diseases. Most of the CSDIs observed were of major severity. The use of DDI checker before prescribing drugs for individuals with kidney diseases could avert clinically significant interactions.

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