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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 173-179

Short versus long-term antibiotic prophylaxis in cesarean section: A randomized clinical trial

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
3 Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Godwin O. Akaba
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/nmj.NMJ_197_20

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Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of intravenous (IV) 48 h course of cefuroxime/metronidazole with long-term course using 48 h cefuroxime/metronidazole plus 5 days oral regimen of cefuroxime and metronidazole for the prevention of post cesarean section wound infection. Methods: Two hundred and forty-eight women were randomized into two equal groups. Women in each arm of the study received IV cefuroxime 750 mg twelve hourly and IV metronidazole 400 mg eight hourly for 48 h. Those in the long-term arm received additional tablets of cefuroxime 500 mg twelve hourly and Tabs 400 mg of metronidazole eight hourly for 5 days. After the surgery, surgical site infections were evaluated. Length of hospital stay and the cost of antibiotics were also assessed. Results: The wound infection rate was not statistically significantly different between the 2 groups (1.3% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.136). The incidence of endometritis was 2.1%, with no statistically significant difference seen between the two groups (0.4% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.213). Escherichia coli was the most common isolate seen in 36.4% of infected wounds. The short arm group stayed for significantly shorter days in the hospital (2.9 ± 1.0 vs. 3.8 ± 1.1 days,P < 0.001), and the cost of antibiotics was also significantly less in the short arm group (P < 0.001). Organisms associated with nosocomial infections were seen only in the long arm that stayed in the hospital for longer days. Conclusions: Short-term prophylactic antibiotics are as effective as long-term prophylaxis and have other benefits such as shorter duration of hospital stay, reduced cost of antibiotics, and reduction of nosocomial infections.

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