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CASE REPORT
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 281-283

Rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in a toddler: A report of a rare paediatric case in obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria


1 Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Gastroenterology/Nutrition Unit, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2 Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Pulmonology Unit, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. S S Edward
Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Gastroenterology/Nutrition Unit, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/nmj.NMJ_210_20

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The emergence of resistant strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) to antituberculous drugs has compounded the management of the chronic infection. More than 90% of rifampicin (RIF)-resistant isolates are also isoniazid resistant; hence, rifampicin resistance (RR) is a surrogate marker for multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Although there are limited reports of pediatric RR/MDR-TB in Nigeria, there had not been similar report in our hospital until now. A 2-year-old girl was admitted with 2-month history of fever, cough with dyspnea, and progressive weight loss. There was no known contact with adult who had chronic cough; the toddler and her parents have not been treated for TB in the past. Her chest X-ray showed nodular opacities, while gastric washout for GeneXpert MTB/RIF confirmed RIF-resistant TB. The parents declined screening for TB despite counseling. The patient was subsequently referred to a specialized center for the management of drug-resistant TB, but the parents failed to go for the treatment. Young children are at risk of developing TB disease and MDR/RR-TB, which is more complex to manage than drug-susceptible TB due to longer treatment duration, increased toxicity, as well as poor parental compliance to the demand of treatment.


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