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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 303-306

Diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology in head and neck lesions from a tertiary health facility in Southwestern Nigeria

1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
2 Department of Pathology, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Olalere Omoyosola Gbolahan
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/nmj.NMJ_65_20

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Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is widely employed as an initial investigative tool in the diagnosis of various lesions in the body, however, it is limited in the provision of precise architectural detail of lesions. This is said to be responsible for the wide variation in the documented usefulness and accuracy relative to histopathology. This study aimed to correlate cytopathological and histopathological examination (HPE) of head and neck lesions, and assess the usefulness and accuracy of FNAC in our center. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study that utilized historical data obtained from case notes and histopathology records of 91 patients that had both FNAC and HPE done for head and neck lesions in our center during the study. The FNAC results were correlated with that of the histopathological diagnosis to obtain the accuracy of the FNAC diagnosis. Diagnostic validity of FNAC in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value were also evaluated. Results: A total of 91 FNAC-HPE sample pairs were included. The Sensitivity and specificity for benign lesion was 95.4% and 42.3%, respectively, while for sensitivity and specificity for malignant lesion was 31.8% and 96.9%, respectively. The overall Sensitivity and specificity for cytology was 96.8% and 30.4%, respectively. Conclusion: FNAC appears to be a useful tool in the initial assessment of head and neck lesions in our center, however, the high rate of missed diagnosis especially as concerned malignancies has dire negative treatment implications. There is need to develop capacity for improved skill in making cytopathologic diagnoses among anatomical pathologists involved in the use of FNAC as diagnostic and screening tool.

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