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The evolution of health care systems in Nigeria: Which way forward in the twenty-first century
Ajovi Scott-Emuakpor
April-June 2010, 51(2):53-65
  361,851 2,909 -
Hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria - A review
GO Emechebe, IJ Emodi, AN Ikefuna, GC Ilechukwu, WC Igwe, OS Ejiofor, CA Ilechukwu
January-March 2009, 50(1):18-22
Background:Hepatitis B virus infection is a pandemic and chronic infection may lead to chronic liver diseases which are often lethal. This review was done to assess the status of hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria. Materials and Method:Source of information was mainly from published works in Nigeria and elsewhere. The information was extracted over period of 5 months from May to December 2007. Result: Since over 30years when pioneer works were done in Nigeria to the recent tunes the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection has remained very high. In Nigeria, the transmission of hepatitis B virus occurs mainly during childhood and all the risk factors (like blood transfusion, sexual promiscuity, lower socioecomic status etc) implicated elsewhere in the spread of the virus in the general population also play role in Nigeria. Conclusion: Reduction in the of hepatitis B virus infection could be achieved by public enlightenment campaign, mass immunization of the children and adults at risk while antiviral drugs and immunostimulatory therapy should be provided for those already infected.
  42,514 914 -
Malaria treatment services in Nigeria: A review
Benjamin SC Uzochukwu, Ogochukwu P Ezeoke, Uloaku Emma-Ukaegbu, Obinna E Onwujekwe, Florence T Sibeudu
July-September 2010, 51(3):114-119
Malaria remains a major Public Health problem in Nigeria and causes death and illness in children and adults, especially pregnant women. Malaria case management remains a vital component of the malaria control strategies. This entails early diagnosis and prompt treatment with effective antimalarial medicines. The objectives of this review is to enable health professionals to understand the magnitude of malaria treatment services in Nigeria, to improve knowledge for rational malaria management within different health system contexts with a view to improving access to malaria treatment. The review therefore looks at the following areas: clinical disease and epidemiology; the burden of malaria in Nigeria; objectives of treatment; antimalarial treatment policy; malaria diagnosis, treatment strategies/ National responses; treatment sources. The review concludes that for improved malaria treatment services in Nigeria, there is an urgent need to develop adequate strategies that will ensure better access to medicines by getting evidence-based and effective medicines to the people who need them, whether by reducing their costs, promoting equity in access, improving their distribution, increasing their efficacy and acceptability, or slowing down the development of antimicrobial resistance.
  31,307 851 -
Community based healthcare financing: An untapped option to a more effective healthcare funding in Nigeria
Echendu D Adinma, Brian-D J. I. Adinma
July-September 2010, 51(3):95-100
Context:The Nigerian health system is characterized by chronic under funding. This has resulted in poor performance of the health sector evident from Nigerian's poor reproductive health indices. Objective: This review evaluates healthcare funding in Nigeria with respect to health budget and health expenditure, appraises the national health insurance scheme, and examines community health care financing as a plausible option to a more effective funding of healthcare in Nigeria. Pattern of health funding in Nigeria: Federal Government budget on health ranged from N 4, 835 million-N 17, 581. 9 million from 1996 to 2000. This amount represented only 2. 7%- 5. 0% of the total Federal Government budget. Nigerian's Total Health Expenditure (THE) as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is low ranging between 4. 3 %- 5. 5 % from 1996- 2005. General Government Health Expenditure (GGHE) as percentage of THE is also low ranging from 21. 8 %- 33. 5 %. Private sector expenditure on health as percentage of THE is high ranging between 66. 5 %- 78. 2 % from 19962005, with private households' out of pocket accounting for 90. 4 %- 95. 0 % over the period. Social security fund had no contribution to the general government expenditure over the 10-year period. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) currently covers only the formal sector of 4. 5 million people ( 3. 2 %) of the population. Community-based healthcare financing (CBHF): Community-based healthcare financing has been recognized as a community-friendly and community-driven initiative that has a wider reach and coverage of the informal sector especially if well designed. Experience with the Anambra State CBHF scheme, and a few other similar schemes in Nigeria indicate high acceptability of the people to CBHF scheme. Conclusion and Recommendations: Government and non-governmental organizations should collective develop various forms of CBHF to reach out widely to Nigerians.
  27,508 904 -
Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women in Zaria, Nigeria
Saad Aliyu Ahmed, Kabiru Sabitu, Suleiman Hadejia Idris, Rukaiya Ahmed
September-October 2013, 54(5):316-319
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.122337  PMID:24403709
Background: Cervical cancer is the most common genital cancer and one of the leading causes of death among female population. Fortunately, this cancer is preventable by screening for premalignant lesions but this is rarely provided and hardly utilised. We assessed the knowledge, attitude and utilisation of cervical cancer screening among market women in Sabon Gari, Zaria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women. A total of 260 women were administered with questionnaires which were both self and interviewer administered. These were analysed using SPSS version 11. Results: Respondents exhibited a fair knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening (43.5%); however, their knowledge of risk factors was poor. There was generally good attitude to cervical cancer screening (80.4%), but their level of practice was low (15.4%). Conclusions: There was a fair knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Nigerian market women in this study, their practice of cervical cancer screening was poor.
  27,233 404 37
The accuracy of 2D ultrasound prenatal sex determination
Blessing Ose-Emenim Igbinedion, Theophilus Oriazo Akhigbe
April-June 2012, 53(2):71-75
Background: Pregnant women have been curious about the sex of their unborn child. The advent of ultrasound, its application into medicine, and the revolutionary changes in its resolution and function has led to the ability to assign a sex to these unborn children, thereby allaying the anxiety of these women but with consequent emergent ethical, moral, psycho-social, and medico-legal issues. The objectives were to determine the accuracy of sonographic prenatal sex determination, perform binary classification test, and the impact it has, including mis-diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A prospective prenatal sonographic sex determination study on 205 consecutive consenting pregnant women aged 20-40 years in a private hospital in Benin between August 2010 and October 2011. Questionnaires were administered to these women before and after the scan and the women were told the sex of the fetuses and their feelings on the determined sex recorded. The sex at birth was confirmed and compared to the scan determined gender by their case note and telephone. Relevant discussions during the scan and later on were recorded on the questionnaires. The statistical package used was SPSS version 17 and binary classification tests were performed. Results: The sensitivity (98.2%) and binary classification components values of prenatal sex determination were high with the sensitivity of detecting a female higher than that of males. Two males were misdiagnosed as females. Most of the women were happy even when the sex differed from that which they desired. Conclusion: Prenatal sonographic sex determination has a high sensitivity index. Consequently we advocate its use prior to more invasive sex tests.
  24,562 232 2
Hepatitis C virus infection in Nigerians
OS Ejiofor, GO Emechebe, WC Igwe, CO Ifeadike, CF Ubajaka
October-December 2010, 51(4):173-176
Background: Hepatitis C virus is a chronic lifelong infection in the majority of patients who are infected with the virus. Not much is known and written/published about this virus in Nigeria. Objective: To assess the status of hepatitis C virus infection in Nigeria. Materials and method:Sources of information were mainly from published works in and outside Nigeria. The information was extracted over a period of 12 months from January to December 2009. Results: So far the prevalence of hepatitis C. virus infection is increasing in Nigeria, ranging from 4.7-5% in Ilorin, to 5.3-6.6% in Enugu, to 11% in Ibadan and 20% in Benin. Children and adults are all at risk of being infected especially sickle cell disease patients. Others include those who are exposed to the common risk factors like Blood transfusion, haemodialyisis, recycling of syringes and needles, sexual promiscuity. Conclusion: Reduction in the Hepatitis C virus infection could be achieved by Health education campaign of the general public and by support from government and non-governmental organizations for the to provision of antiviral and immunostimulatory drugs free of charge for those already infected.
  22,410 459 -
Hormones in pregnancy
Pratap Kumar, Navneet Magon
October-December 2012, 53(4):179-183
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.107549  PMID:23661874
The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug's safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus
  22,359 454 133
Malaria in Pregnancy
EE Okpere, EJ Enabudoso, AP Osemwenkha
July-September 2010, 51(3):109-113
Malaria remains one of the highest contributors to the precarious maternal mortality figures in sub-Saharan Africa. At least 6 million women worldwide are at risk of malaria infection in pregnancy. Malaria contributes to at least 10, 000 maternal deaths and to at least 200, 000 newborn deaths annually. Malaria is a contributor or aetiologic factor in pregnancy complications including anaemia, spontaneous abortion, prematurity and stillbirths. Pregnancy results in increased incidence and severity of malaria. Cerebral malaria, acute renal failure and severe anaemia, rare complications in adults living in malaria endemic areas, may complicate malaria in pregnancy. Research implicate reduced maternal immunity from increased steroid levels in pregnancy, increased attractiveness of pregnant women to mosquito bites and increased adherence of parasitized erythrocytes to Chondroitin sulphate A expressed in the placentae. This is worse in the first and second pregnancies. With infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus [HIV], the effects of malaria in pregnancy are even worse. Over the decades, there have been concerted worldwide collaborative efforts, spearheaded by the World Health Organization [WHO] and including governments and allied agencies to tackle the scourge of malaria in pregnancy. The main thrusts of such efforts have been: to increase the use of insecticide treated mosquito bed nets [ITN]; intermittent preventive treatment of malaria [IPT]; and adequate case treatment of acute malaria attacks in pregnancy. While for IPT, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine [SP] combination has been proven to be of benefit in preventing acute and latent malaria in pregnancy and its associated complications, the WHO has introduced the use of Artemisinin-Combination Therapy [ACT] for the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria in pregnancy, the need to confirm malaria before treatment and the enforcement of completion of therapy once started. The Roll Back Malaria [RBM] campaign was launched as a strategy to curtail the incidence and scourge of malaria especially in the vulnerable groups including pregnant women. The Millennium Development Goals [MDGs] offer a new hope if adequately pursued to achieving eradication of malaria and its complications in pregnancy. There is need to support research into effectiveness and utilization of established and newer control measures.
  22,251 472 -
Abstracts from Nigerian medical association annual scientific meeting. April 21- 25, 2010 International Conference Centre, Abuja

January-March 2010, 51(1):39-51
  21,692 560 -
Universities and medical education in Nigeria
AO Malu
April-June 2010, 51(2):84-88
Formal attempts at Medical Education in Nigeria began in 1927 with the establishment of an institution in Lagos for training medical manpower to diploma level. They were trained to practice only in Nigeria. The program was not popular and was discontinued. Following the report of the Elliot Commissions on higher education in West Africa it was decided to establish the University of London College at Ibadan, with a Faculty of Medicine as one of the initial faculties. This was realized in 1948. The debate on what type of doctor to produce for Nigeria ended with the decision to produce high caliber doctors of the same standing as British trained doctors. In 1960 the Ashby Commission on Higher Education in Nigeria recommended the establishment of more training institutions, including those for medicine. This led to the establishment of the University of Lagos with the College of Medicine. The three initial regional governments all established their universities with medical faculties. Medical education has expanded rapidly with the expansion of universities, and we now have Federal and State governments as well as other organizations or private individuals owning universities with medical schools. Regulation of undergraduate medical education has continued to be under the dual oversight of the National Universities Commission and the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria. The main problems of the medical schools have been the shortage of properly trained staff and poor facilities, curriculum stagnation and lack of modern teaching and assessment instruments. To tackle these problems training in educational methods should be mandatory for academic staff; there should be greater synergy between the NUC and MDCN, and curriculums should be reviewed to reflect modern trends.
  21,734 369 -
Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis - A preliminary report
Faizal C Peedikayil, Prathima Sreenivasan, Arun Narayanan
March-April 2015, 56(2):143-147
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.153406  PMID:25838632
Background: Oil pulling or oil swishing therapy is a traditional procedure in which the practitioners rinse or swish oil in their mouth. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases but the evidence is minimal. Oil pulling with sesame oil and sunflower oil was found to reduce plaque related gingivitis. Coconut oil is an easily available edible oil. It is unique because it contains predominantly medium chain fatty acids of which 45-50 percent is lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. No studies have been done on the benefits of oil pulling using coconut oil to date. So a pilot study was planned to assess the effect of coconut oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coconut oil pulling/oil swishing on plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. A prospective interventional study was carried out. 60 age matched adolescent boys and girls in the age-group of 16-18 years with plaque induced gingivitis were included in the study and oil pulling was included in their oral hygiene routine. The study period was 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices of the subjects were assessed at baseline days 1,7,15 and 30. The data was analyzed using paired t test. Results: A statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices was noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study. Conclusion: Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis.
  21,352 264 32
The human health implications of crude oil spills in the Niger delta, Nigeria: An interpretation of published studies
Best Ordinioha, Seiyefa Brisibe
January-February 2013, 54(1):10-16
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.108887  PMID:23661893
Background: The health hazards created by oil exploration and exploitation are covert and slow in action. They are not given the deserved attention in official documents in Nigeria, even as they can be major contributors to the disease burden in oil-bearing communities. This study is an interpretation of the data reported in several published studies on crude oil spills in the Niger delta region, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A manual and Internet search was conducted to extract quantitative data on the quantity of crude oil spilled; the concentrations of the pollutants in surface water, ground water, ambient air and plant and animal tissue; and the direct impact on human health and household food security. Results: An average of 240,000 barrels of crude oil are spilled in the Niger delta every year, mainly due to unknown causes (31.85%), third party activity (20.74%), and mechanical failure (17.04%). The spills contaminated the surface water, ground water, ambient air, and crops with hydrocarbons, including known carcinogens like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benxo (a) pyrene, naturally occurring radioactive materials, and trace metals that were further bioaccumulated in some food crops. The oil spills could lead to a 60% reduction in household food security and were capable of reducing the ascorbic acid content of vegetables by as much as 36% and the crude protein content of cassava by 40%. These could result in a 24% increase in the prevalence of childhood malnutrition. Animal studies indicate that contact with Nigerian crude oil could be hemotoxic and hepatotoxic, and could cause infertility and cancer. Conclusions: The oil spills in the Niger delta region have acute and long-term effects on human health. Material relief and immediate and long-term medical care are recommended, irrespective of the cause of the spill, to ensure that the potential health effects of exposures to the spills are properly addressed.
  19,294 634 71
Trends in maternal mortality at University of Maiduguri teaching hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria - A five year review
BM Audu, UI Takai, M Bukar
October-December 2010, 51(4):147-151
Background: Maternal mortality is on the rise in Nigeria with the North- East having the highest ratio, and Borno state records one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the country. Objective: To determine the trends in maternal mortality in UMTH, identify the background socio- cultural factors, establish the major causes of deaths and determine avoidable factors. Study design: Retrospective study of maternal deaths. Methods: The case records of all recorded cases of maternal deaths between January 2001 and December 2005 inclusive were retrieved and relevant data obtained and analysed. Results: The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) for the period under review was 430 per 100,000 live births. There were annual fluctuations in MMR. However, there was a consistently rising trend in MMR from 2002-2004 with the highest ratio of 545 per 100,000 live births recorded in the year 2004, with a decline in 2005. Thirty (78.9%) of these deaths occurred among the unbooked patients and more than 90% of this were referred as obstetric emergencies. Age range was 14-39 years with a mean of 26.5years. The highest maternal death occurred at the two extremes of reproductive age group (14-19 years and 35 years and above). Grandmultiparas suffered the highest maternal mortality of 36.8%, followed by teenage mothers. P1-4 contributed the least to maternal mortality. The direct causes of maternal death accounted for 92.1% of the deaths. The major causes of death were eclampsia 34.2%, sepsis 26.3% and prolonged obstructed labour/ruptured uterus 13.2%. Amongst the indirect causes of maternal death, HIV/Tuberculosis was the leading cause accounting for 5.3%. Basic but professional antenatal care, skilled attendance at birth, community mobilization and health education messages for a healthy pregnancy and safe birth will help to reduce the unacceptably high maternal mortality ratio in Borno state and the country at large.
  17,630 725 -
Typhoid fever in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria: Another look at the Widal agglutination test as a preferred option for diagnosis
Osahon Enabulele, Simeon Nyemike Awunor
May-June 2016, 57(3):145-149
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.184057  PMID:27397952
Background: Single Widal agglutination test rather than blood culture, is commonly employed to diagnose typhoid fever in Nigeria. We took another look at the Widal agglutination test as a preferred option for diagnosis of typhoid fever by determining the specificity and sensitivity of Widal agglutination test in febrile adult patients. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy-one blood samples from consecutive adults (>18 years) with febrile illness attending the General Practice Clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were tested using the Widal agglutination test, blood culture, and malaria parasite test on each sample to establish the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Results: Of the 271 blood samples 124 (45.76%) were positive following a Widal agglutination test, 60 (22.10%) blood samples grew Salmonella organisms on blood culture while 55 (20.29%) blood samples showed a co-infection of typhoid fever and malaria. A sensitivity of 35%, specificity of 51%, positive predictive value of 17%, and a negative predictive value of 73% were observed for Widal agglutination test as a diagnostic modality for typhoid fever infection. Conclusion: A single Widal agglutination test is not a valid diagnostic option for typhoid fever while co-infection with malaria parasite is the preponderant microbiological finding in typhoid fever infections. The severity of malaria parasitemia is associated with positive titers on Widal test.
  17,582 38 6
An overview of disease surveillance and notification system in Nigeria and the roles of clinicians in disease outbreak prevention and control
Elvis E Isere, Akinola A Fatiregun, Ikeoluwapo O Ajayi
May-June 2015, 56(3):161-168
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.160347  PMID:26229222
While outbreaks of infectious diseases have long presented a public health challenge, especially in developing countries like Nigeria; within recent years, the frequency of such outbreaks has risen tremendously. Furthermore, with the recent outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola virus disease and other epidemic prone diseases in Nigeria demanding immediate public health action, there is a need to strengthen the existing notifiable disease surveillance and notification system with increased clinicians' involvement in timely reporting of notifiable diseases to designated public health authorities for prompt public health action. Hence, this paper provides the opportunity to increase awareness among clinicians on the importance of immediate reporting of notifiable diseases and intensify engagement of clinicians in disease notification activities by describing various notifiable diseases in Nigeria using their surveillance case definition, outlines the reporting channel for notifying these diseases and highlights the roles of clinicians in the current disease surveillance and notification network for early disease outbreak detection and public health response in Nigeria.
  17,408 209 28
Implications of low oral health awareness in Nigeria
OO Sofola
July-September 2010, 51(3):131-133
I congratulate the Nigerian Medical Association on this Golden Jubilee celebration. It is my opinion that time is apt for us all to have to reappraisal of health care delivery in Nigeria and fashion a practical and achievable way forward for the betterment of the health of the poor Nigerian. I thank the association for inviting me to participate in this symposium on "50 years of oral health in Nigeria". It is my hope and prayer that deliberations at this meeting would signal the beginning of a well planned and structured oral health care delivery system for Nigeria. My brief is to discuss the implication of low oral health awareness in Nigeria.
  16,845 481 -
Barriers to utilisation of maternal health services in a semi-urban community in northern Nigeria: The clients' perspective
Suleman Hadejia Idris, Mohammed Nasir Sambo, Muhammed Sani Ibrahim
January-February 2013, 54(1):27-32
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.108890  PMID:23661896
Background: Low level of utilisation of maternal health services is a major factor responsible for high maternal mortality in northwestern region of Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the barriers to utilisation of maternal health services from the perspective of mothers in northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 150 mothers, selected through multistage technique, was conducted. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, and analysed using SPSS statistics 17.0. Results: Only 2.7% utilised preconception service, 98.7% antenatal care service (ANC), 24.0% delivery, 35.3% postnatal care and 14.0% utilised family planning service. Major reasons for non-utilisation of delivery service were not having a delivery complication in the past (57% (CI = 47.4-66.1)) and negative provider attitude (23.7% (CI = 16.4-32.7)). For non-utilisation of postnatal care, the major reasons were also not having a postnatal complication in the past (60.8% (CI = 50.4-70.4)) and negative provider attitude (27.8% (CI = 19.4-38.0)). As for non-utilisation of family planning service, the major reason was desire to have more children (32.6% (CI = 24.7-41.4)). Reasons for non-use of preconception care and ANC were not computed because respondents to these questions were not enough; only 6 (4.0%) were aware of preconception care in the first place and only 2 (1.3%) were not using ANC. Conclusion: Despite living near a health facility, most of the mothers were not using maternal health services. It is recommended that while there is the need to raise awareness on the utilisation of maternal health services, bring it closer to the mothers and make it more affordable, there is a more pressing need to improve its quality, especially through the alleviation of negative attitude of health care providers.
  16,400 433 48
Incidence and patterns of cardiovascular disease in north western Nigeria
Akindele O Mukadas, Uba Misbau
July-September 2009, 50(3):55-57
Background:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been major problem in the developed and developing countries and its burden in these countries is overwhelming. There is a dearth of literature and data on the prevalence and patterns of CVD in developing countries, especially Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the most common cardiovascular disorder, the mostly affected age and sex groups and annual increase/decrease between 2001 and 2005 in Northwestern Nigeria. Methods: Our study reviewed the pattern and incidence of CVD in North western Nigeria. Case notes of patients in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital and Usman Dan Fodio University Teaching Hospital were reviewed between 2001 and 2005. These two teaching hospitals provide tertiary health care services to six out of seven states that form north western Nigeria with a population of 29,720,322 Nigerians. Results: A total number of 4103 case notes of CVDs were reviewed out of which 2159(52.69%) were males while 1944(47.40%) were females. A steady rise in the incidence of CVD between 2001-2005 was observed. Hypertension (39.1%) was the most prevalent CVDs while congenital heart disease (1.1 %) had the lowest. Conclusion: It was concluded that hypertension was the most prevalent CVD while congenital heart disease was the lowest. A steady increase in the incidence of CVD was observed during the period under review.
  16,301 404 -
Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy among pregnant women in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital
Swati Singh, Ekele Bissallah Ahmed, Shehu Constance Egondu, Nwobodo Emmanuel Ikechukwu
September-October 2014, 55(5):384-388
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.140377  PMID:25298602
Background: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) represent a group of conditions associated with high blood pressure during pregnancy. It is an important cause of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. The aims of the study were to find the prevalence of hypertensive disorders and its associated risk factors among women attending the antenatal clinic of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital,(UDUTH) Sokoto. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study of 216 consecutively recruited women that were less than 20 weeks pregnant at booking was carried out. Blood pressure was measured for each woman at booking and at subsequent visits. Urinalysis was done at booking and whenever blood pressure was elevated. Patients were followed-up to delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. Data entry and analysis was done using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) statistical package. Results: The prevalence of HDP in the study was 17% while preeclampsia was 6%. Previous history of preeclampsia (P < 0.001; Relative risk (RR) 4.2; conficence interval (CI) 2.144-6.812), multiple gestation (P < 0.03; RR 3.8; CI 1.037-6.235), gestational diabetes (P < 0.02; RR 4.8; CI 1.910-6.751) and obesity (P < 0.002; RR 2.7; CI 1.373-5.511) were the significant risk factors in the development of HDP among the study population. Conclusion: The prevalence of HDP in the study group is high. Therefore, paying attention to the risk factors will ensure early detection and prevention of the progression of the disease and its sequelae.
  15,697 239 27
Dietary practices and nutritional status of under-five children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria
Idowu O Senbanjo, Ibiyemi O Olayiwola, Wasiu A. O. Afolabi
November-December 2016, 57(6):307-313
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.193854  PMID:27942096
Background: Evidence shows that urban children generally have a better nutritional status than their rural counterparts. However, data establishing whether this difference in prevalence of undernutrition could be ascribed to difference in dietary practices are few. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare dietary practices and nutritional status of children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative-analytical study conducted using the multistage sampling technique to select the study cases. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, including 150 each from rural and urban communities. Data collected include demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, feeding practices and anthropometric measurements of the participants. Food intake data were collected using 24-h dietary recall. Malnutrition in children was determined by calculating the prevalence of low height-for-age (stunting), low weight-for-age (underweight), and low weight-for-height (wasting) using the World Health Organization cutoff points. Results: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (25.3% vs. 28.7%; P = 0.516), use of formula feeds (48.7% vs. 44%; P = 0.077), and mean age of child at introduction of semisolid foods (7.54 ± 4.0 months vs. 8.51 ± 7.3 months; P = 0.117) were not significantly different between urban and rural communities. The diversity of food choices and frequencies of consumption were similar between urban and rural communities. However, prevalence levels of underweight and stunted children were significantly higher in rural than that of urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, P < 0.001 and 43.3% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Other risk factors besides inappropriate feeding practices need to be considered for higher prevalence of undernutrition among children in rural communities.
  15,847 33 6
Awareness and knowledge of National School Health Policy and School Health Programme among public secondary school teachers in Ibadan metropolis
Taiwo A Obembe, Kayode O Osungbade, Oluwakemi M Ademokun
July-August 2016, 57(4):217-225
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.188341  PMID:27630385
Background: The awareness, knowledge, and involvement of teachers in the implementation of School Health Programme (SHP) in secondary schools are essential in ensuring the effectiveness and overall success of the School Health Policy. This study assessed the awareness and knowledge of teachers on SHP in Ibadan metropolis. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out using a two-stage sampling technique to select 426 secondary school teachers across all the five Urban Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Ibadan metropolis by balloting. Pretested semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 426 teachers. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and logistics regression tests at 5% level of significance. Results: About one-third of the respondents had heard of National School Health Policy (NSHP); however, few had seen the document. About half of the respondents were aware of the SHP in their schools. Many of the respondents had a good knowledge of SHP. Age and level of education of participants significantly influenced the knowledge of SHP. Above 50 years of age and postgraduate qualification were the significant predictors for the good knowledge of SHP. Conclusions: Awareness of the NSHP was low despite the good knowledge of SHP. This could be due to the tertiary education that most of the respondents had. Concerted efforts of stakeholders are required to intensify the health education awareness campaign to improve teachers' knowledge based on NSHP.
  15,729 31 4
Healthcare - associated infections: A public health problem
Angela Revelas
April-June 2012, 53(2):59-64
Disinfection and sterilization in hospitals, is of increasing concern. Nosocomial infections can be defined as those occurring within 48 hours of hospital admission, 3 days of discharge or 30 days of an operation. They affect 1 in 10 patients admitted to hospital. Nosocomial infections are associated with a great deal of morbidity, mortality, and increased financial burden
  15,483 265 111
Ectopic pregnancy: A 5 year review of cases at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) Nnewi
GO Udigwe, OS Umeononihu, II Mbachu
October-December 2010, 51(4):160-163
Background: Ruptured ectopic pregnancy continues to be a common life threatening emergency in our environment as well as a public health problem. Objective:This is to study the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors and the management of cases that presented in our centre over a five year period. Methods:This is a retrospective study of cases of ectopic gestations managed in the gynaecological unit of NAUTH Nnewi from January 1 st , 2002 to December 31 st , 2006. Information was obtained from the case notes, theatre and labour ward registers. Results: During the period, a total of 2,746 deliveries were recorded while 556 gynaecological patients were admitted. Thirty six patients had ectopic gestations accounting for 1.3% of all deliveries and 6.5% of all gynaecological admissions. The peak age group was 26-30 years (44.4%); 28(77.7%) were married and 20 (55.6%) attained secondary school as their highest level of education. All 36(100%) of the patients were symptomatic at presentation. Abdominal pain, amenorrhoea and syncopal attack were the most common symptoms at presentation. Also, multiple sexual partners 27(75%), previous abortions 25(69.4%) and previous sexually transmitted infections 10(27.8%) were the most common risk factors present in the patients. Abdominal paracentesis 32(88.9%), ultrasound 8(22.2%) and urine pregnancy tests 7(19.4%) were most commonly utilized for diagnosis. None of the cases was diagnosed before rupture. Open abdominal surgery was the treatment employed in all the patients. Conclusion:Ectopic pregnancy is still a major challenge in gynaecological practice in our centre. Most cases present late making tubal conservation treatment inapplicable. This has far reaching implications in a society where there is high premium on child bearing.
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Interferon-gamma treatment kinetics among patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis
Olanisun Olufemi Adewole, Martin O Ota, Greg E Erhabor, Patrick Owiafe, Aliu Oladimeji, Daniel Obaseki
November-December 2013, 54(6):376-381
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.126287  PMID:24665150
Introduction: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is essential for defence against Mycobacterium tuberculosis; however, levels in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) and changes during treatment have not been documented in our tuberculosis patients in Nigeria, hence this study has been carried out. Objective: To determine variations, treatment kinetics, and predictive value of IFN-γ levels during treatment of active tuberculosis. Design: Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were recruited and subsequently followed up for 3 months during treatment with anti-TB. Peripheral blood was collected for IFN-γ assays, C-reactive protein and others followed by a Mantoux test. IFN-γ levels produced by stimulation with TB antigens were determined by ELISA and repeated measurement of IFN-γ were done at 1 and 3 months of anti-TB therapy. Chi Associations and correlations between IFN-γ were determined. Regression analysis was done to determine association between serial IFN-γ and treatment outcome. Results: We recruited 47 patients with active tuberculosis with a mean age of 34.8 ± 3.6 years and M:F ratio of 1.12:1. Six (11%) were HIV positive. The mean level of IFN-γ induced by TB antigens was 629 ± 114.1 pg/ml, higher for HIV-negative PTB patients compared with HIV-positive PTB patients, 609.78 ± 723.9 pg/ml and 87.88 ± 130.0 pg/ml, respectively, P-value = 0.000. The mean level of IFN-γ induced by TB antigen increased significantly from 629 ± 114.1 pg/ml to 1023.46 + 222.8 pg/ml, P-value = 0.03 and reduced to 272.3 ± 87.7 pg/ml by the third month on anti-TB drugs, P-value = 0.001. Negative correlation was observed between the mean of baseline and chest X-ray involvement, P = 0.03. There was no significant correlation between sputum smear grade with baseline and follow-up IFN-γ levels. Three-month IFN-γ level among cured patients were higher than those with treatment failure, regression analysis showed that it does not predict outcome. Conclusion: IFN-γ may be useful in early detection and monitoring response; however, large scale studies are needed.
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