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   2015| November-December  | Volume 56 | Issue 6  
    Online since December 11, 2015

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Doctors as managers of healthcare resources in Nigeria: Evolving roles and current challenges
Temitope Olumuyiwa Ojo, Adebowale Femi Akinwumi
November-December 2015, 56(6):375-380
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.171614  PMID:26903692
Over the years, medical practice in Nigeria has evolved in scope and practice, in terms of changing disease patterns, patients' needs, and social expectations. In addition, there is a growing sentiment especially among the general public and some health workers that most doctors are bad managers. Besides drawing examples from some doctors in top management positions that have performed less creditably, critics also harp on the fact that more needs to be done to improve the training of doctors in health management. This article describes the role of doctors in this changing scene of practice and highlights the core areas where doctors' managerial competencies are required to improve the quality of healthcare delivery. Areas such as health care financing, essential drugs and supplies management, and human resource management are emphasized. Resources to be managed and various skills needed to function effectively at the different levels of management are also discussed. To ensure that doctors are well-skilled in managerial competencies, the article concludes by suggesting a curriculum review at undergraduate and postgraduate levels of medical training to include newer but relevant courses on health management in addition to the existing ones, whereas also advocating that doctors be incentivized to go for professional training in health management and not only in the core clinical specialties.
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Cerumen impaction: Challenges and management profile in a rural health facility
Olajide Toye Gabriel
November-December 2015, 56(6):390-393
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.171620  PMID:26903695
Background: Cerumen impaction is a worldwide problem. It constitutes a significant proportion of health problems in many settings and its prevalence varies. Very few studies were done in this region with none from our center. The aim of this study is to review the challenges and management profile of cerumen impaction in a rural health facility in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a 3-year retrospective study of all patients that were managed for cerumen impaction from June 2008 to May 2011, in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. Results: A total of 239 patients, aged 3–98 years were managed for cerumen impaction. The male: female ratio was 1.6:1. The age group 1–20 years was mostly affected in 29.3%. Major complaints were hearing impairment in 120 cases. Both ears were mostly affected in 48.5% of the patients. Olive oil was a major ceruminolytic agent used in 95.4%. Ear syringing was carried out in 91.2% of cases. Major complications were bruises of external auditory canal and otalgia in 7.3% of cases each. Forty-two (17.8%) of our patients were asymptomatic, and they did not complained of ear problem. Out of those patients that were symptomatic, 44.3% had visited general medical practitioners and non-otolaryngologist, while 27.6% had self-medication or visited chemist for their ear complaints. Only 3.7% of them had been seen by ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist in the past. Conclusion: Cerumen impaction is a common otolaryngological problem that presents to ENT surgeon, children, and elderly are more affected. Hearing impairment is the major complaint which may increase the burden of disability on society. Syringing is the most common mode of treatment of our patients. Continuing medical education, proper otological examination by the non-otolaryngologist and public health education to improve the low level of awareness on danger of self-medication is essential.
  5,353 20 3
Assessment of some cardiovascular risk factors in predialysis chronic kidney disease patients in Southern Nigeria
Oluseyi A Adejumo, Enajite I Okaka, George Madumezia, Chimezie G Okwuonu, Louis I Ojogwu
November-December 2015, 56(6):394-399
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.171616  PMID:26903696
Background: Cardiovascular risk factors are responsible for cardiovascular disease and rapid progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease. Prompt evaluation, modification, and treatment of these factors in predialysis patients will reduce morbidity and mortality. This study assessed some cardiovascular risk factors in predialysis CKD patients in a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: This was a case–control study that involved 76 consecutive predialysis CKD patients and 38 age-and sex-matched controls without CKD over 1 year period. Both groups were assessed for cardiovascular risk factors, and comparisons were made. A P value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: The mean ages of the CKD versus control group were 48.00 ± 15.28 versus 45.34 ± 15.35 years. The male:female ratio was 1.7:1 for both groups. The common etiologies of CKD in this study were hypertension 30 (39.5%), diabetes mellitus 23 (30.3%), and chronic glomerulonephritis 19 (25%). There were 38 (50%) in CKD stage 3, 31 (40.8%) in CKD stage 4, and 7 (9.2%) in CKD stage 5. The common cardiovascular risk factors found in the CKD versus control were hypertension (96.1% vs. 42.1%), anemia (96.1% vs. 23.7%), left ventricular hypertrophy (77.6% vs. 23.7%), dyslipidemia (67.1% vs. 39.5%), hypocalcemia (60.1% vs. 18.5%), hyperphosphatemia (63.2% vs. 0%), and hyperuricemia (57.9% vs. 15.8%). These risk factors were significantly higher in CKD group. Hyperphosphatemia and hypoalbuminemia significantly increased across CKD stages 3–5. Anemia was significantly more common in males whereas dyslipidemia was more common in female CKD patients. Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors were highly prevalent in predialysis CKD subjects even in early stages. Hypoalbuminemia and hyperphosphatemia significantly increased across the CKD stages 3–5 whereas anemia and dyslipidemia showed significant gender differences. Cardiovascular risk factors should be treated early in predialysis CKD patients.
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Determinants and outcome of fetal macrosomia in a Nigerian tertiary hospital
Oghenefegor Edwin Olokor, Joseph Ubini Onakewhor, Adeniyi Kolade Aderoba
November-December 2015, 56(6):411-415
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.171622  PMID:26903699
Background: To determine the incidence and risk factors of fetal macrosomia and maternal and perinatal outcome. Patients and Methods: This was a 1-year prospective case–control study of singleton pregnancies in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Only women who gave consent were recruited for the study. The maternal and perinatal outcomes in women who delivered macrosomic infants (birth weight ≥ 4000 g) were compared with the next consecutive delivery of normal birth weight (2500–3999 g) infants. Results: The total deliveries for the study period were 2437, of which 135 were macrosomic babies. The incidence of fetal macrosomia was 5.5%. The mean birth weights of macrosomic and nonmacrosomic babies were 4.26 ± 0.29 kg and 3.20 ± 0.38 kg, respectively, P = 0.000. Mothers with macrosomic babies were more likely to be older (P = 0.047), of higher parity (0.001), taller (P = 0.007), and weighed more at delivery (P = 0.000). Previous history of fetal macrosomia (P = 0.000) and maternal diabetes (P = 0.007) were factors strongly associated with the delivery of macrosomic infants. Pregnancies associated with fetal macrosomia had increased duration of labor (P = 0.007), interventional deliveries (P = 0.000), shoulder dystocia, and genital laceration (P = 0.000). There was no significant difference in the incidence of primary postpartum hemorrhage (P = 0.790), birth asphyxia, and perinatal mortality (P = 0.197). Conclusion: Fetal macrosomia is associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. The presence of the observed risk factors should elicit the suspicion of a macrosomic fetus and the need for appropriate management to reduce maternal and fetal morbidities.
  3,896 20 1
Early response to medical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia in a Nigerian population
Osawe Felix Omoregie, Mercy Okoh
November-December 2015, 56(6):381-384
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.171618  PMID:26903693
Background: This study evaluates the clinical profile of patients suffering from trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and correlates the findings with early response of the patients to medical treatment. Patients and Methods: A 4-year prospective study in which patients diagnosed of TN were treated medically and followed up weekly for 8 weeks to determine early treatment outcome, in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Results: Of the 287 patients seen during the study period, a total of 14 (4.9%) patients were diagnosed of TN. Thirteen (4.5%) of the cases were selected based on compliance to the 8-week follow-up visits, consisting of 8 (61.5%) males and 5 (38.5%) females, giving a ratio of 1.6:1. The mean age of the patients was 50±1.5 years. The mandibular (n = 6, 46.2%) and maxillary (n = 5, 38.5%) divisions of the trigeminal nerve were mostly affected. The lesion was slightly more common on the right side of the face (n = 7, 53.8%) than the left side (n = 6, 46.2%). Talking (n=4, 30.8%) and chewing (n = 3, 23.1%) were the most frequent trigger factors. The patients mostly described the pain as severe, spontaneous, and sharp (n = 5, 38.2%). Most patients became stable on tablets carbamazepine 200 mg 12 hourly, folic acid 5 mg daily, and phenytoin 100 mg daily. Good response was observed in most patients within 2 weeks (n = 6, 46.2%) of medical treatment, especially in patients at the seventh decade of age (n = 3, 23.1%) and those with lesions involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (n = 3, 23.1%). Conclusion: This study shows early response of TN to medical treatment. We recommend combination therapy of carbamazepine and folic acid in the treatment of patients, especially elderly patients with lesions involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.
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A 20-year retrospective study of histopathologic patterns of gonadal germ cell tumors in males in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital
Odokuma Emmanuel Igho
November-December 2015, 56(6):385-389
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.171619  PMID:26903694
Background: Localization of germ cells tumors to the gonads is not uncommon and has been shown to possess good prognosis with appropriate treatment. Studies on the prevalence and histopathologic features of these tumors in Nigerians are, however, rare. This study was, therefore, aimed at determining the pattern of gonadal germ cell tumors (GGCTs) in Benin and environs. Materials and Methods: This was a 20-year retrospective study conducted at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital 9-(UBTH), a tertiary health facility in Benin City. Data were obtained from the histopathology day book of the Department of Morbid Anatomy of the UBTH, and permission was obtained from the UBTH Ethics Committee protocol number ADM/E 22/A/VOL.VH/928 with results displayed in tables and figures. Results: Intratubular germ cell neoplasms (ITGN) was the most common GGCT with about 33.3% of the total and was distributed within the fourth to fifth decades of life; benign cystic teratoma and choriocarcinoma were observed to have a low occurrence with 8.3% each found in age groups 11–20 and 21–30 years, respectively. The studied gonadal lesions were most frequent at the left testis and were predominantly premalignant forms. Conclusion: This was an index study on patterns of GGCTs in males in UBTH, and it showed that GGCTs in males were predominantly premalignant with ITGN as the most common type of testicular germ cell tumors.
  3,499 18 -
Cardiac dysrhythmia resulting from antibiotic abuse
Basil Nwaneri Okeahialam
November-December 2015, 56(6):429-432
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.171615  PMID:26903703
Antibiotics are commonly used to combat infections and could be used in treating some connective diseases. They are not without side effects especially when used without regard to age, gender, diseases and their severity, comorbidity, and idiosyncrasies. This is more likely to occur when dispensed by unqualified persons to selves or others. Consequences of inappropriate use include various morbidities and in some instances death. This is a report of a middle-aged man with several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, who on the side had chronic osteomyelitis. Wound swab grew organisms sensitive to levofloxacin, and he had the drug prescribed to him by the attending orthopedic surgeon. With reduction in discharge to the point that he no longer bound his foot in bandage, he went on using the drug beyond the duration of prescription without reverting to his orthopedic surgeon until he developed sudden onset palpitation and shortness of breath. With this was an unusual tachyarrhythmia which defied initial measures. This prompted further review of his drug history when he admitted to taking levofloxacin for up to 3 months. Suspecting it to be the culprit, he was advised to discontinue it. With this, his symptoms started to abate, alongside gradual improvement in electrocardiograms till eventual normalization. This report is made to highlight the possibility that some antibiotics have the propensity to induce arrhythmias that can be very serious especially in cardiovascular disease-burdened patients. Such patients then go into heart failure and it becomes difficult to tell which came first, the arrhythmia or the heart failure. Resolving the order of onset assists in proper management. As a result, it is being recommended that patients with unexplained arrhythmias with or without heart failure should have their drug histories evaluated. Uncontrolled prescription and use of antibiotics should also be discouraged.
  3,168 20 3
Report of a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Chukwudi Onyeaghana Okani, Benjamin Otene, Terhemba Nyaga, Joseph Ngbea, Agaba Eke, Felix Edegbe, Daniel Anyiam
November-December 2015, 56(6):433-435
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.171612  PMID:26903704
Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disease, known to be the most common cause of hypothyroidism in nonendemic goitrous areas. It is usually characterized by symmetric, painless, and diffused but sometimes localized swelling of the thyroid gland with features of hypothyroidism. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), on the other hand, is the most common yet less aggressive form of thyroid cancer, especially in iodine-deficient areas. The coexistence of the two diseases is possible but not common. This case study reports a 50-year-old female with a 10-year history of a huge goiter, which was essentially symptom-free until about 3 months prior to presentation when the patient started complaining of neck pain, dysphagia, productive cough, and cold intolerance. Physical examination revealed focal cystic and tender area in the multinodular swelling and associated cervical lymphadenopathy on the left side of the neck. The serum thyroid stimulating hormone was high, sub-normal T3, and the T4 was low. The fine needle aspiration cytology yielded 10 ml of aspirate of pus admixed with altered blood which on microscopy showed a few suspicious follicular epithelial cells with open nuclei admixed with mainly neutrophil polymorphs, siderophages, and foam cells in a hemorrhagic background. The patient had an incision biopsy that showed areas displaying PTC and HT.
  3,069 18 1
Pitfalls of antiretroviral drug resistance genotyping of HIV-1 Group M and Group N from Cameroon by sequenced-based assays
Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Frédéric Talla, Perrine Talla, François-Xavier Mbopi-Kéou, Charlotte Charpentier, Coumba Toure Kane, Laurent Bélec
November-December 2015, 56(6):420-424
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.171613  PMID:26903701
Background: HIV-1 genotyping for antiretroviral drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were developed based basically on subtype B HIV-1 Group M, which represents only 10% of HIV strains worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, non-B subtypes HIV-1 largely predominate and HIV-1 genetic diversity could affect the performance of drug resistance genotyping assays. We compared prospectively the performance of the ViroSeq® and Trugene® genotyping assays to detect DRM in HIV-1-infected adult patients living in Douala, Cameroun. Materials and Methods: DRM in protease (P) and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes were assessed in parallel using both ViroSeq® and Trugene® assays in plasma samples from 45 first-line antiretroviral treatment-experienced patients in Douala, Cameroon. Results: Trugene HIV-1 Genotyping Assay® (Siemens Health Care Diagnostics, NY, USA) and ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System®(Celera Diagnostics, CA, USA) assessed equivalently antiretroviral DRMs in P and RT genes from non-B HIV-1 Group M in 44 Cameroonian adults in virological failure; Trugene® was slightly more sensitive than ViroSeq® (100% vs. 91%). One patient infected by HIV-1 Group N was successfully amplified only by the Trugene HIV-1 Genotyping assay®, while ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0® assay could not. Conclusion: Results showed the higher performance of the Trugene® system to detected and amplify P and RT genes targeting DRM to the principal antiretroviral drugs used in sub-Saharan Africa. Discrepancies between the results of HIV viral load assays and molecular tests should alert clinicians and virologists to the possibility of infection by an atypical variant virus, especially in Central Africa where very broad HIV-1 genetic diversity exists.
  2,877 18 1
Bacteriological evaluation for one-and two-piece implant design supporting mandibular overdenture
Ahmed Abdelwahed, Ahmed I Mahrous, Mohamed Farouk Abadallah, Hani Asfour, Hussien A Aldawash, Ebaa I Alagha
November-December 2015, 56(6):400-403
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.171623  PMID:26903697
Background: This study evaluated and compared the bacteriological effect of two-piece implants and one-piece implants in complete overdenture cases on supporting structures. Materials and Methods: Ten male completely edentulous patients were selected and randomly divided into two equal groups according to the implant design and surgical technique for this study; Group 1: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by two-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch following two-stage surgical technique and Group 2: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side. Evaluation was made at the time of insertion, 6, 12, and 18 months after overdenture insertion, by measuring bacteriological changes around implants abutments. Results: Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants showed better effect on the bacteriological changes as compared to that supported by two-piece implants. Conclusion: Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch showed better effect on the bacteriological changes than using the same prosthesis supported by two-piece implants.
  2,783 18 1
Independent and joint effects of serum 25-hydroxivitamin D and calcium on breast cancer ratio in an Iran population: Across-sectional study
Seyed Mostafa Shiryazdi, Zahra Ghodratipour, Seyed Ali Shiryazdi, Sara Yassini, Mohaddeseh Aboueian-Jahromi, Hossien Fallahzadeh, Farimah Shamsi
November-December 2015, 56(6):416-419
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.171621  PMID:26903700
Background: It has been suggested that Vitamin D and calcium have protective effects against breast cancer. The results about breast cancer and serum Vitamin D and calcium levels are still controversial, indefinite, and insufficient to determine the amount of nutritional needs. Thus, we investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25-OH-D) and calcium on the ratio of breast cancer at diagnosis time. Materials and Methods: We carried out a hospital-based cross-sectional study in a population of Iran. It comprised 57 breast cancer cases, who were newly diagnosed, and 85 controls in 2013. The serum 25-OH-D and calcium levels were measured. Results: There was not any significant association between 25-OH-D and breast cancer ratio. Odds ratio (OR) comparing the highest quartile to the lowest quartile was 1.03(95% confidence interval[CI] 0.33–3.22, P-trend 0.95). Having sufficient (>75 nmol/L) serum 25-OH-D levels compared to insufficient serum 25-OH-D levels was not associated with a significantly decreased ratio of breast cancer (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.23–1.29, P = 0.17). Furthermore, an association between calcium and breast cancer did not get statistical significance (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.17–1.49, P-trend 0.31). The joint effect was negative interaction. Conclusion: Vitamin D and calcium do not act on decreasing ratio of breast cancer. Decreasing ratio of breast cancer in relation to serum calcium and Vitamin D level at diagnosis time needs more assessments.
  2,642 18 2
A cross-sectional study of the knowledge and attitude of medical laboratory personnel regarding continuing professional development
Ekwempu Adaobi Ifeoma, Ede Folashade Rebecca, Ojo Oyekunle Ezekiel, Ofojekwu Mary-Jane, Essien Cosmas Uyime, Edeh N Obiageri, Adeshiyan Tola, Damen James
November-December 2015, 56(6):425-428
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.171617  PMID:26903702
Background: Continuing professional development (CPD) in Medical Laboratory Scientists (MLS) is aimed at equipping laboratory professionals with the necessary skills to enhance practice. The laboratory scientists are usually the first contact between the patient and health care system in aspects of diagnosis and monitory of diseases. As such, it becomes imperative to assess the knowledge of laboratory personnel regarding CPD. Materials and Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 200 laboratory personnel's attending the maiden CPD workshop organized by the Association of MLS in Jos the Plateau state capital. Results: One hundred and thirty-five (82 males and 53 females) of the 200 administered questionnaires were returned. Only 32 of them (23.7%) attended CPD program in the last 1 year with 10 (7.5%) engaging in online CPD. Five (3.7%) of the respondents had the privilege to attend an international CPD. Majority (95.2%) of the respondents identified CPD as an essential component of professional career development. Lack of sponsorship was identified as a major setback in CPD efficiency by 93.8% of respondents. About 58 (46.4%) noted that poor attendance in CPD workshops was due to unavailability of policy guideline for CPD. One hundred and twenty (95.2%) of respondents had an aim of improving their skills after attending CPD workshops. Conclusion: The overall attitude of Nigerian MLS toward attending CPD workshop is poor; however, the knowledge regarding the importance of CPD is adequate. There exists a gap between sponsorship for CPD by various institutions and MLS.
  2,325 18 1
Self-reported sulphonamide hypersensitivity reactions in adults living in Ibadan, Nigeria: Across-sectional, community-based study
Akpan Richard Mary, Kotila Adejoke Olayinka, Akpa Matthew Onoja, Fawole Olufunmilayo, Falusi Gladys Adeyinka, Babalola Peace Chinedum
November-December 2015, 56(6):404-410
DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.171611  PMID:26903698
Background: Documentation of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is critical to a safe health delivery system. The aim of our study was to explore the prevalence of self-reported sulphonamide hypersensitivity reactions in a community-based sample of the general population in Ibadan, Nigeria. We also examined sociodemographic factors associated with ADRs in the sample. Patients and Methods: The study was cross-sectional in design with study sites in urban, semiurban, and rural settlement areas. Pretested questionnaires were administered on a one-on-one basis by trained interviewers. Frequency tables and percentages were computed for various levels of the variables. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between sulphonamide hypersensitivity and variables such as sociodemographic characteristics of respondents, respondents' knowledge of drugs, as well as drug sources. Variables found to be significantly associated with sulphonamide hypersensitivity were further investigated using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Results: Out of the 1062 respondents, 15.5% reported hypersensitivity to sulphonamides with skin reactions being the most prevalent. The proportion reporting ADRs was significantly higher among respondents with tertiary education (23.1%) than any other level of education (P = 0.008). In addition, individuals who were very knowledgeable about drug use (odds ratio[OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–3.73) and persons who got drugs from hospitals (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.10–3.65) were more likely to report ADRs than those who were ignorant about drugs and those who purchased drugs from open markets, respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of sulphonamide hypersensitivity is high among respondents, and ADRs is likely to be reported by people who are knowledgeable about drug use.
  2,206 18 1