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   2018| May-June  | Volume 59 | Issue 3  
    Online since June 11, 2019

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Patterns and Impact of Consultations to an Endocrinology Unit in a Tertiary Hospital in Southwestern Nigeria
Akolade O Idowu, Oluwaseyitan Andrew Adesegun, Ayokunle Osonuga, Bamikole Osibowale, Theophilus Ajiro, Taamaka Davis Ngubor, Oyindamola Falade, Olumide Abiodun
May-June 2018, 59(3):28-32
DOI:10.4103/nmj.NMJ_167_18  PMID:31293286
Background: The dearth of endocrinologists in Nigeria, coupled with a paucity of data on patterns of endocrine consultations pose a challenge in evaluating the impact of consultations on patients' management and eventual outcomes. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency, sources of referrals, the common cases referred, the reasons for consultation requests, and the outcome of patients who benefitted from endocrine consultations. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in the Endocrinology unit of Babcock University Teaching Hospital, over 9 months. All patients referred to the unit were sampled (total sampling). Their sociodemographic parameters, sources, and reasons for consultations were documented. The patients' case notes were then retrospectively reviewed, to determine the impact of the consultation on their management and outcome. Results: A total of 108 consults were received throughout the study. Most consultations were requested by the general outpatient clinic (37%) followed by cardiology clinic (12%). The most common reason was to take over management of the patients. Diabetes mellitus accounted for 68.7% of the cases seen. Diagnosis made by the referring physician was confirmed in most cases, new diagnoses or change in diagnosis was reached in 9.3% and 3.7%, respectively. About 39.8% of the patients were lost to follow-up, while 53.8% were in good and fair clinical condition. Conclusion: Most of the cases referred for specialist care were from the general outpatient clinic, had diabetes mellitus, and benefitted from specialist care by the way of advanced investigations and treatments, though about a third were lost to follow-up. It is imperative that a good referral system is maintained among physicians, to ensure that patients get the best care available. Attention must be paid to common causes of patient attrition such as lack of widespread health insurance coverage, to ensure continuity of care.
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A study on the assessment of haller cells in panoramic radiograph
KS Prem Kumar, R Sudarshan, G Sree Vijayabala, Samuel Raj Srinivasan, Prajna V Kini
May-June 2018, 59(3):25-27
DOI:10.4103/nmj.NMJ_166_18  PMID:31293285
Context: Haller cells are extensions of ethmoid cells which can be seen in several imaging modalities. Literature search has shown that idiopathic orofacial pain is associated with the presence of Haller cells. Hence, a simple cost-effective imaging modality for displaying the presence of Haller cells is desirable. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of Haller cells in panoramic radiography. Subjects and Methods: The retrospective study comprised of 403 individuals of both genders. Panoramic radiograph was taken for every individual and interpreted for the presence of Haller cells. Factors incorporated in the interpretation were prevalence of Haller cells, distribution of Haller cells among genders, site predilection, unilocular or multilocular variant, and most common shape prevalent among the individuals. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test with SPSS software. Results: Among 403 individuals, the Haller cells were present in 92 (22.8%) individuals. Of 92 (22.8%) individuals with Haller cells, 40 (18.5%) were males and 52 (27.8%) were females. Seventy-four individuals (80.4%) were unilocular and 18 (19.6%) were multilocular. Forty-five individuals had (48.9%) tear-shaped Haller cells, 27 (29.3%) had round-shaped Haller cells, and 20 (21.8%) had oval-shaped Haller cells. Forty (43.5%) were on the right side, 29 (31.5%) were on the left side, and 23 (25%) were on both sides. Conclusions: The present study assessed the prevalence of Haller cells as 22.8%, and this was done in a cost-effective way using panoramic radiographs.
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