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   2018| July-August  | Volume 59 | Issue 4  
    Online since June 13, 2019

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A case report of 5 yr old boy with malingering in Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria
Oluwasola Julius Oke, Yetunde Justina Osundare, Oluwatobi Faith Folarin
July-August 2018, 59(4):43-44
DOI:10.4103/nmj.NMJ_163_18  PMID:31303691
There are few reported cases of malingering in children in developed countries, but none has been reported among Nigerian children. This could be because of missed diagnosis, thus creating the impression that malingering is rare in children. Ability to clearly establish that a client has a primary motive behind feigning the illness is a major to look for in malingering. We present a case of a 5-year-old boy with a history of recurrent abnormal body movement and shaking of his body which on detailed evaluation revealed the intention behind his presentation.
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Influence of smoking on gingival crevicular fluid interleukin 1β and interleukin-8 in patients with severe chronic periodontitis among a Rural Population in India
Ritu Prabha Patel, Ramesh Amirisetty, Butchibabu Kalakonda, Narendra Varma Penumatsa, Pradeep Koppolu
July-August 2018, 59(4):33-38
DOI:10.4103/nmj.NMJ_142_17  PMID:31303689
Background and Objective: Smoking is widely prevalent among rural Indian populations. Smoking is considered a significant risk factor for periodontal diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of smoking on the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL) IL-1β and IL-8 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and compare these between smokers and nonsmokers with periodontitis in diseased and healthy sites. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty patients with severe chronic periodontitis (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) participated in this study. Clinical parameters assessed were gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level. One diseased and one healthy site from each of the periodontitis patients were selected for GCF collection and assigned to the following four groups: healthy sites in smoker (SH), diseased sites in smoker (SD), healthy sites in nonsmoker (NH), and diseased sites in nonsmoker (ND) and were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test (Quantikine®). Results: Intragroup comparisons revealed statistically significant levels of IL-1β in ND sites compared to NH sites (P < 0.005) and SD sites showed statistically significantly higher levels of IL-1β compared to SH sites (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in IL-8 levels between NH and ND sites as well as between SH and SD sites. Intergroup comparisons revealed that SH sites exhibited significantly lower amounts of IL-8 (P < 0.01) compared to NH sites and SD sites showed significantly lower levels of IL-8 compared to ND sites (P < 0.001). However, the comparison of NH and SH sites as well as ND and SD sites showed no significant difference in the levels of IL-1β. Conclusions: Cytokine levels were significantly elevated in periodontitis patients. Smokers exhibited a decrease in IL-8 and increase in IL-1β levels. Hence, this reflects the influence of smoking on immunosuppression and its role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.
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Unmet need and nonacceptance of usage of contraceptive devices in a Rural Area of Delhi: An exploration of facts
Meely Panda, Rambha Pathak, Nazish Rasheed, Zakirhusain Shaikh, Farzana Islam
July-August 2018, 59(4):39-42
DOI:10.4103/nmj.NMJ_9_17  PMID:31303690
Background: An important cause of high fertility rates in Delhi is the low availability and use of family planning services. Fostering family planning practice alleviates poverty, accelerates socioeconomic development, increases child schooling, promotes gender equality, and decreases maternal and infant mortality. The study objective was to find out the perception of potential users, health workers, and health professionals on the reasons for nonusage of contraceptive services provided and to recognize possible solutions to the identified barriers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done using qualitative methods among three groups of people by focus group discussion and in-depth interviews. The study was conducted in the rural health center of Madanpur Khaddar, Department of Community Medicine, Jamia Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, from June to August 2016. Results: The median age group of the participants was 27 years, and the participants were majorily less educated and were homemakers. Description of key thematic issues found out that contraceptive nonusage was due to lack of accessibility, lack of availability, as well as issues with privacy and autonomy. Out of 25 women, 3 had never heard the term Copper-T (CuT). Twelve out of the rest 22 women had heard about CuT, but knew no more than that. Conclusion: The findings that have emerged from this study thus provide some recommendations to increase the demand for contraception. Effective information, education, and communication should be promoted continuously with the help of community health workers for better acceptance of CuT because it is believed that no single child should be born into the world unplanned.
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